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山东绿化苗木讲解核桃树栽植培养的方法

山东绿化苗木讲解核桃树栽植培养的方法

栽植应注意配置授粉树:发展核桃种植时多数人都会忽略配置授粉树问题,这也是目前核桃产量低的主要原因之一。核桃花芽分雌、雄,同一品种雌、雄花开花时间往往不一致,一般相差6—7天,最长相差近10天,造成花期不遇,所以核桃落花落果十分严重。据观察,有些品种雄花先开,有些品种雌花先开,如在同一园内种植两个以上品种,就可以解决因花期不遇而影响坐果的问题。

Attention should be paid to the pollination tree planting configuration: development of walnut planting when the majority of people will ignore the configuration pollination tree problem, one of which is the main reason of the low yield at walnut. Walnut female, male flower bud, blossom time same breed female, male flowers are often inconsistent, the general difference between 6 - 7 days, the most ugly for nearly 10 days, causing the flowering, so walnut flower and fruit drop is very serious. According to observation, some varieties of male flowers open first, some varieties of female flowers open first, such as the planting of more than two varieties in the same park, we can solve for flowering and fruit set problems influence.

定植穴宜大不宜小:核桃定植后,在园地要生长结果近百年,所以树坑一定要挖长、宽、深为1×1×1米的,并且回填土时,在树坑底部最深处20厘米土层内加施有机肥25公斤。挖大定植穴十分有利于根系生长发育。穴内加施有机肥,可以引导根系往深层生长,增强树体的抗寒、抗旱性。目前栽培核桃定植穴只挖长、宽、深为0.5×0.5×0.5米或用机械开50—60厘米沟都是不可取的,因为栽植核桃不仅求其活,重要的是要让其结果,并且早结果、多结果、结好果、长期结果。尤其粘土地挖小定植穴是引起核桃幼树沤根、黄叶、死树的重要原因之一。所以定植穴宁大勿小,通过挖定植穴达到改良土壤的目的,也为日后丰产奠定了基础。

Planting hole should be large: Walnut after planting in the garden, to nearly a hundred years of growth, so the hole must be dug long, wide, deep into 1 x 1 x 1 meters, and backfill soil, with the application of organic fertilizer 25 kilograms in the hole the depth of 20 cm soil layer at the bottom. Digging planting hole is very conducive to the growth and development of root system. Cavity with organic fertilizer, can lead to deeper root growth, enhance cold resistance, drought resistance of tree. The current culture of walnut planting hole just dig long, wide, deep into 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 meters or by mechanical drive 50 - 60 cm ditch is not desirable, because planting walnut not only for its activities, it is important to let the results, and early results, many results, bear good fruit, long-term results. Especially clay dig small planting hole is a major cause of young walnut retting root, yellow leaves, dead tree. So planting hole rather big not to small, by digging planting hole to achieve the purpose of improving the soil, but also laid the foundation for future fertility.

选择优良品种:核桃结果早晚、品质优劣、丰产性状等主要是品种决定的。北京郊区历史种植核桃多采用实生养殖,一般种后7—8年后才开始结果。当前农业科学院所、大专院校已选育出一批优良品种,并采取嫁接培育苗木,能完好地保持优良品种特性,但售价多是实生苗的2—3倍。目前市场仍有以次充好兜售实生苗现象,部分果农不识真相,买后5—6年仍不结果。所以发展核桃种植一定要选优良品种。建议选用中林系、辽核系、晋龙系、薄壳香、礼品核桃等优良品种较好。

Choose excellent breed: Walnut results sooner or later, quality, yield traits is the main varieties of decision. The Beijing suburb of historical plant walnut seedling breeding use, generally after the 7 - 8 years after the start of the results. The current agricultural science institute, universities and colleges have bred a batch of excellent varieties, and take the grafting and cultivating seedling, keeps the excellent variety characteristics, but the price is more than 2 - 3 times the seedlings seedlings. Currently on the market there are still selling seedlings shoddy phenomenon, some farmers did not know the truth, after buying 5 - 6 years still no results. So the development of walnut planting must choose the excellent varieties. Suggested the use of forest system in Liao, Jin long, nuclear system department, shell incense, gifts and other excellent better varieties of walnut.

断主根促侧根:核桃苗木主根特别发达,而侧根非常弱,形似萝卜。为促其侧根生长,定植前一定切断主根,并注意保护侧生须根,防止失水而干枯,否则会影响苗木成活。最好的方法是挖出苗木及时假植,运输苗木时根部蘸泥浆,栽前应根部泡水12—24小时,使植株充分吸水,有条件的最好用生根粉水浸泡,这是提高苗木成活率的有效措施。

Broken taproots promoting lateral root: walnut seedling taproot and lateral root developed, is very weak, the shape of radish. To promote the growth of lateral roots, taproot must cut off before colonization, and pay attention to the protection of lateral roots, prevent water loss and dry, otherwise it will affect the seedling survival. The best way is to dig out the seedlings transplanting seedlings in time, transport root dipped in mud, before transplanting should root soak in water for 12 - 24 hours, so that plants absorb enough water, the best conditions for root soaking powder in water, it is the effective measures to improve the survival rate of seedlings.